Severity of Alcohol Dependence Syndrome and its Socio-demographic and Clinical Correlates - A Cross Sectional Study
Keywords:alcohol dependence, severity of alcohol use, clinical factors, sociodemographic factors
Background: In Kerala, according to National Family Health Survey 4, 37.5% of males and 1.6% of females use alcohol. Even though the physical and mental health morbidity of alcohol dependence is well-known, studies are less. The study assessed the severity of alcohol dependence and its different socio-demographic and clinical correlates. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among alcohol dependence syndrome patients. Total sample size 100 was achieved by consecutive sampling. Data was collected using a semi-structured proforma, which included severity of alcohol use using severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ). Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were done to find the relationship between variables. Results: All the participants were males. The majority were between 30-60 years, from a rural background (64%), belonged to low socioeconomic (85%) nuclear families (65%). The majority of the participants had started using alcohol before 20 years of age (85%), were using alcohol for more than ten years (97%), had comorbid nicotine use (80%), at least one previous admission (91%) and a positive family history of alcohol use (72%). All the participants in the study had moderate to severe ADS. On comparing different variables with the severity of ADS, age of onset, the number of previous admissions and comorbid nicotine use were significant. Logistic regression analysis found the age of onset (p-value 0.019) and nicotine use (p-value 0.002) as the predictors of severity of ADS. Conclusion: Study points to the need for early intervention programs targeting the high-risk population and the need for addressing nicotine use among persons with ADS.
World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. Glob status Rep alcohol. 2018;
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2021 May 13];380(9859):2224–60. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23245609/
Rehm J, Gmel G, Sempos CT, Trevisan M. Alcohol-Related Morbidity and Mortality. Alcohol Res Heal. 2003;27(1).
WHO | Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2014. WHO [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2021 May 14]; Available from: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/alcohol_2014/en/
Ram F, Paswan B, Singh SK, Lhungdim H, Sekhar C, Singh A, et al. National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16). Econ Polit Wkly. 2017;52(16).
Gururaj G, Gautham MS, Arvind BA. Alcohol consumption in India: A rising burden and a fractured response. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2021 Mar 1;40(3):368–84.
Das SK, Balakrishnan V, Vasudevan DM. Alcohol: Its health and social impact in India. Natl Med J India. 2006;
Das A, Gjerde H, Gopalan SS, Normann PT. Alcohol, Drugs, and Road Traffic Crashes in India: A Systematic Review. Traffic Inj Prev. 2012 Nov;13(6):544–53.
Puddey IB, Rakic V, Dimmitt SB, Beilin LJ. Influence of pattern of drinking on cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors - A review. Addiction. 1999;
Shivani R, Jeffrey Goldsmith R, Anthenelli RM. Alcoholism and psychiatric disorders diagnostic challenges. Alcohol Res Heal. 2002;26(2).
SCHUCKIT MA, MONTEIRO MG. Alcoholism, Anxiety and Depression. Br J Addict. 1988;83(12).
Moss HB. The impact of alcohol on society: A brief overview. Soc Work Public Health. 2013;28(3–4).
McFarlin SK, Fals-Stewart W. Workplace absenteeism and alcohol use: A sequential analysis. Psychol Addict Behav. 2002;16(1).
Sen S, Victor R, Saxena K. Family burden in alcohol dependence: A study in north-eastern India. Int J Med Sci Public Heal. 2016;5(11):2402.
World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. ICD-10 Classif Ment Behav Disord Diagnostic criteria Res. 1993;
Stockwell T, Murphy D, Hodgson R. Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire ( SADQ ). Br J Addict. 1983;78(2).
Vignesh BT, Singh AK, Mohan SK, Murthy S, Joshi A. Association between socio-demographics and alcohol dependence among individuals living in an Indian setting. Glob J Health Sci. 2014;6(3):16–26.
Chavan S, Birajdar S, Pawar N. Clinical profile of patients with alcohol use disorder. 2018;5(2):48–56.
Prashanth C, Sowmya B. Clinical profile and coping in patients of alcohol dependence syndrome during their abstinence: A cross sectional study. 2019 [cited 2021 May 14]; Available from: http://iaimjournal.com/
Mishra N, Nagpal S, Chadda RK, Sood M. Help-seeking behavior of patients with mental health problems visiting a tertiary care center in North India. Indian J Psychiatry [Internet]. 2011 Jul [cited 2021 May 17];53(3):234–8. Available from: https://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5545;year=2011;volume=53;issue=3;spage=234;epage=238;aulast=Mishra
KARANDIKAR NJ, RAUT PK, TAGAD PK. A cross-sectional study about socio-demographic factors and clinical characteristics of male patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. Int J Clin Biomed Res [Internet]. 2021 Feb 19 [cited 2021 May 14];7(1):1–5. Available from: https://www.ijcbr.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/379
Reddy MPK, Babu RS, Pathak SM, Venkateshwarlu S. The clinical and demographic profile of male patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. Indian J Psychol Med [Internet]. 2014 Oct 1 [cited 2021 May 14];36(4):418–21. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC4201796/
Clinical and Socio-demographic Profile of Patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome: A Hospital Based Study. [cited 2021 May 14]; Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322835155_Clinical_and_Socio-demographic_Profile_of_Patients_with_Alcohol_Dependence_Syndrome_A_Hospital_Based_Study
Pradeep R. J, Banu S, Ashok M V. Severity of alcoholism in Indian males: Correlation with age of onset and family history of alcoholism. Indian J Psychiatry. 2010;52(3):243–9.
Schneider U, Altmann A, Baumann M, Bernzen J, Bertz B, Bimber U, et al. Comorbid anxiety and affective disorder in alcohol-dependent patients seeking treatment: The first multicentre study in Germany. Alcohol Alcohol [Internet]. 2001 May 1 [cited 2021 May 17];36(3):219–23. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/alcalc/article/36/3/219/170138
Literacy Rate 2011 - Government of Kerala, India [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 14]. Available from: https://kerala.gov.in/web/guest/literacy-rate-2011
Rice JP, Saccone NL, Foroud T, Edenberg HJ, Nurnberger JI, Goate A, et al. Alcoholism: Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Encycl Life Sci. 2006 Jul 15;
Mattoo SK, Nebhinani N, Anil Kumar BN, Basu D, Kulhara P. Family burden with substance dependence: A study from India. Indian J Med Res [Internet]. 2013 Apr [cited 2021 May 19];137(4):704–11. Available from: https://www.ijmr.org.in/article.asp?issn=0971-5916;year=2013;volume=137;issue=4;spage=704;epage=711;aulast=Mattoo
Treatment and Recovery | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). [cited 2021 May 19]; Available from: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/treatment-recovery
Drobes DJ. Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Dependence Mechanisms and Treatment.
Chatterjee K, Dwivedi AK, Singh R. Age at first drink and severity of alcohol dependence. Med J Armed Forces India [Internet]. 2021;77(1):70–4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mjafi.2019.05.003
Hingson RW, Heeren T, Winter MR. Age of alcohol-dependence onset: Associations with severity of dependence and seeking treatment. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep;118(3).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Kerala Journal of Psychiatry
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.