Somatic complaints and their relationship with depressive symptoms among adolescent girls: a descriptive study
Keywords:somatic complaints; depressive symptoms; adolescent girls
Background: Physical symptoms of unknown etiology are common in children and adolescents. Adolescents suffer from depression in a similar way to adults.
Objectives: Main objectives were to assess the somatic complaints and depressive symptoms of adolescent girls and to identify relationship between these variables. Other objectives were to find out the association between somatic complaints and selected socio personal variables and to find the association between depressive symptoms and selected socio personal variables.
Methods: descriptive survey design. The sample size was 250 adolescent girls. The tools used for the data collection included a questionnaire to collect socio personal data and child adapted version Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15) for assessing somatic complaints and Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS) for assessing the depressive symptoms. The study was conducted among students of selected government schools of Kozhikode, district of Kerala.
Results: The results showed that about 1.6% had high level of somatic complaints, 4% had medium and 40.4% had low somatic complaints. Important findings includes 15.2% of participants were having depressive symptoms. The study also found a positive correlation between somatic complaints and depressive symptoms.
Conclusion: Screening for somatic complaints among adolescent girls help in the early identification of depression in adolescent girls.
Malhotra S, Kohli A, Kapoor M, Pradhan B. Incidence of childhood psychiatric disorders in India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2009;51(2):101â€“107.
Sherman ML, Barnum DD, Buhman-Wiggs A, Nyberg E. Clinical Intake of Child and Adolescent Consumers in a rural community mental health centre: Does Wait-Time Predict Attendance? Community Ment Health J 2009; 45:78-84.
Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Jun; 62(6):593-602.
Ginsburg GS1, Riddle MA, Davies M. Somatic symptoms in children and adolescents with anxiety Disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;45(10):1179-87.
Hart SL, Hodgkinson SC, Belcher HM, Hyman C, Cooley-Strickland M. Somatic symptoms, peer and school stress, and family and community violence exposure among urban elementary school children. J Behav Med. 2012;36(5):454-65.
Beidel DC, Christ MG, Long PJ. Somatic complaints in anxious children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1991;19(6):659â€“670.
Crawley SA, Caporino NE, Birmaher B, Ginsburg G, Piacentini J, Albano AM, Et Al. Somatic complaints in anxious youth. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2014;45(4):398â€“407.
Hofflich SA, Hughes AA, Kendall PC. Somatic complaints and childhood anxiety disorders. Int J Clin Health Psychol. 2006; 6:229â€“242.
Gilbert R, Kemp A, Thoburn J, Et Al. Child Maltreatment 2 Recognising and responding to child maltreatment. Lancet. 2009; 373:167â€“180.
Hamilton M. Frequency of symptoms in melancholia (Depressive Illness). Br J Psychiatry.1989;154:201â€“206.
Kapfhammer HP. Somatic symptoms in depression. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2006;8(2):227-39.
Kroenke K, Spitzer R, Williams J. The PHQ-15: Validity of a new measure for evaluating the severity of somatic symptoms. Psychosomatic Medicine 2002; 64:258- 266.
Kocalevent RD, Hinz A, BrÃ¤hler E. Standardization of a screening instrument (PHQ-15) for somatization syndromes in the general population. BMC Psychiatry. 2013; 13:91.
Han C, Pae CU, Patkar AA, Masand PS, Kim KW, Joe SH, Jung IK. Psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) for measuring the somatic symptoms of psychiatric outpatients. Psychosomatics. 2009;50(6):580-5.
LeBlanc JC, Almudevar A, Brooks SJ, Kutcher S. Screening for adolescent depression: comparison of the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale with the Beck depression inventory. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2002;12(2):113-26.
Silber TJ, Pao M. Somatization disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatr Rev. 2003 Aug;24(8):255-64.
Jayaprakash R, Sharija S. UNARV: A district model for adolescent school mental health programme in Kerala, India. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2017; 33:233-9
Ogorchukwu JM, Sekaran VC, Nair S, Ashok L. Mental Health Literacy Among Late Adolescents in South India: What They Know and What Attitudes Drive Them. Indian J Psychol Med. 2016;38(3):234â€“241.
Omidvar S, Begum K. Menstrual pattern among unmarried women from south India. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2011;2(2):174â€“179.
Weber S, Puta C, Lesinski M, et al. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Young Athletes Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Front Physiol. 2018; 9:182.
Halpern CT, Tucker CM, Bengtson A, Kupper LL, McLean SA, Martin SL. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17(10):1951â€“1960.
McLean SA, Diatchenko L, Lee YM, et al. Catechol O-methyltransferase haplotype predicts immediate musculoskeletal neck pain and psychological symptoms after motor vehicle collision. J Pain. 2011;12(1):101â€“7.
Bohman H, LÃ¥ftman SB, Cleland N, Lundberg M, PÃ¤Ã¤ren A, Jonsson U. Somatic symptoms in adolescence as a predictor of severe mental illness in adulthood: a long-term community-based follow-up study. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2018; 12:42.
Findlay SM. The tired teen: A review of the assessment and management of the adolescent with sleepiness and fatigue. Paediatr Child Health. 2008;13(1):37â€“42.
Roseman M, Kloda LA, Saadat N, et al. Accuracy of Depression Screening Tools to Detect Major Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(12):746â€“757.
Thapar A, Collishaw S, Pine DS, Thapar AK. Depression in adolescence. Lancet. 2012;379(9820):1056â€“1067.
Costello EJ, Egger H, Angold A. 10-year research update review: the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: I. Methods and public health burden. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005; 44:972â€“86.
Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Angold A. Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006; 47:1263â€“71.
Bertha EA, BalÃ¡zs J. Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Oct;22(10):589-603.
Klein DN, Shankman SA, Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR. Subthreshold depressive disorder in adolescents: predictors of escalation to full-syndrome depressive disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48(7):703â€“710.
Bennett DS, Ambrosini PJ, Kudes D, Metz C, Rabinovich H. Gender differences in adolescent depression: do symptoms differ for boys and girls? J Affect Disord. 2005 Dec;89(1-3):35-44. Epub 2005 Oct 10.
Tylee A, Gandhi P. The importance of somatic symptoms in depression in primary care. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;7(4):167â€“176.
Bohman H, Jonsson U, PÃ¤Ã¤ren A, von Knorring L, Olsson G, von Knorring A-L. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers. BMC Psychiatry. 2012; 12:90.
Larsson BS. Somatic complaints and their relationship to depressive symptoms in Swedish adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1991;32(5):821-32.
Silverstein B. Gender differences in the prevalence of somatic versus pure depression: a replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159:1051â€“1052.
Saluja G, Iachan R, Scheidt PC, Overpeck MD, Sun W, Giedd JN. Prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms among young adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(8):760-5.